Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Should Colleges have Child Care on Campus Essay

Should Colleges have Child Care on Campus - Essay Example The seemingly minute family concern is getting much attention from school administrations and law-makers because of the domino effect the situation can bring not only to the family but to the nation as a whole, affecting its economy and success. Looking at the situation, the individuals who have potentials which are supposed to be nurtured through higher education are forced to drop out in favor of taking the responsibility of being a full time parent. On another angle, when students are able to find child care centers for their children, the centers are usually underrated that the welfare of the children is sacrificed (McBride). For the aforementioned circumstances, it is essential that schools offer child care centers in the campus, enabling students to acquire affordable assistance with high quality performances that caters to the different schedules of students. Every parent wants to provide quality care to their children so that one of the basic considerations in choosing child care centers is the atmosphere the children are exposed to. Statistics shows that children who are given quality early childhood care are more likely to succeed in life (Anderson & Dektar). Therefore, high performance levels of child care centers need to be considered in establishing them inside the school campuses. To ensure this, having the child centers accredited should be a must. One of the accrediting bodies is the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) which aims to strengthen the operational aspects of early childhood systems for the benefit of the children. Such accreditation will provide peace of mind to the parents, knowing that the child care centers they are entrusting their children to are efficient because they are conforming to the requirements demanded by the accrediting body. Simply having one’s child in the care of people who are not able to provide the basic needs of a child would not be sought for as parents will always be parent s, valuing more the safety and care of the children rather than their own education. However, with the accreditation of child care centers in schools, parents would be sure that the staff are well qualified and have the necessary education and training ( to look after their children at affordable prices. Speaking of prices, it is also to be thought of because the people the center services usually come from low-income students who are at the brink of dropping out if they do not find affordable, quality based centers for their children. Affordable prices of course, do not mean they are to be very cheap wherein the child care center will not be able to fund itself and pay for its employees anymore but that the payment should be comparable to the services. This might bring the school child care center to have two or more categories where a cheaper plan would provide the most basic care to the children like feeding, changing diapers and the like. For growing up children who ne ed more attention like being taught how to speak, walk and others, they will be given higher fees. Probably, if there are parents who would like more services to be offered to their children like being taught how to write and read, such can avail of the services at a higher rate as well. In addition, wanting more use of facilities and materials like television, computer, and toys will have to demand additional fees for

Monday, October 28, 2019

Farley, Mowat’s “Never cry wolf” Essay Example for Free

Farley, Mowat’s â€Å"Never cry wolf† Essay Farley, Mowat’s â€Å"Never cry wolf,† is a book based on the research of the lifestyle of wolves in the Arctic Circle. Mowat uses his experience to educate the society of the social ills conducted by the hunters towards the wolves. The book displays the risk that the wolf pack families face due to the human activities in the area. The title of the book acts as a symbol in reference to the story of the boy who cried wolf. The book thus enables the reader to think beyond the tile so as to form an opinion of the author’s message. The book challenges the human communities who are in charge of the nature around them. Humans tend to overstep their authority by infringing on the rights of the wolves. The analysis of the book educates the society of the inhumane activities that humans are inflicting on the animals. Different passages from the book Interpretation of the passage and meaning I was born and grew up in the farm and never knew what it was to have all I wanted or needed as a teenager in the late 20s The author talks of his life as a child. He was exposed to animals at an early stage in life due to his parent’s lifestyle. This is a contributing factor to his love for animals. That night the inevitable happened. We were awakened by the most frightful uproar. It seemed to consist of furious barking of a dozen dogs mingled with the roaring of the menagerie of lions The passage elaborates the intensity of the nature that surrounds him. The conflict between the dogs and the lions displays the fight for power amongst the animals. Then there were the birds. That spring Angus had bought me a field guide and with its help, I identified forty species that were new to me. The author’s exposure to different bird species enabled him to identify with the different lifestyles that they had. Angus developed a love for all forms of wildlife which in turn made him aware of the plight that the animals had. My most cherished images of the mountain country were not of the forbidding peaks but of the animals The author admits that he has a special place for the animals. The country has a number of natural resources that are fascinating to any visitor. Amongst all these features, he places priority on animals making them his favorite pastime. Although I would now commit such atrocities against some of the most beautiful creatures extant, I cannot honestly censor the boy who was for what he did then The author admits that his actions are reflective to that of other men. His treatment of the animals is not desirable initially. He learns how to appreciate all sorts of animals making him an advocate for their livelihood. â€Å"The wolf is a savage, powerful killer. It is one of the most feared and hated animals known to man and with excellent reason† Chapter 6, pg. 60. The passage showcases the dangers that the wolf portrays. Human beings often misinterpret the actions of the wolf due to its dangerous nature. Despite the fact that the wolf continues to become extinct, it poses a threat to the human beings who live next to the packs. This makes the world undesirable by man. â€Å"Evidence obtained by various Government agencies from hunters, trappers and traders seemed to prove that the plunge of the caribou toward extinction was primarily†¦ The intervention by the government saw the danger that the wolves are exposed to. Human activities were mostly responsible for these dynamics making them the number on culprits. This also displayed possible extinction of the breed of wolves if authorities continued to ignore the circumstances. â€Å"I had made my decision that, from this hour onward, I would go open-minded into the lupine world and lean to see and know the wolves, not for what they were supposed to be, but for what they actually are† Chapter 7, pg. 77. Morwat made a personal decision to protect the wildlife from the outside environment. One of the steps he takes is orienting himself with the lives of the wolves. This involves learning about the exact nature of the wolves instead of forming an assumption about them. This in turn will help remove the ignorance that he had so as to improve society’s awareness of the wolves. In conclusion, human beings are responsible for the surrounding environment. This involves observing the safety of all animals in and outside the wild. This is however, not the case in that the number of wild animals continues to diminish due to the human activity. The wolves are one of the animals that continue to face the wrath of human beings. The analysis of the book is thus ideal for the education of the public. This in turn will improve the existing relationship between man and nature.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Communication Essay -- Effective Communication, Barriers

This assignment discusses barriers to, and methods of, effective communication with people who are confused by reflecting on my experience in communicating with an elderly confused patient. Specifically, and within the scope of this assignment, I reflect on two methods of effective communication with elderly confused patients; one verbal (reality orientation) and one non-verbal (touch). During my first placement I was asked to assist in the care of Elsie (pseudonym), an 86 year old lady admitted to hospital with a fracture to her hip and a urinary tract infection (UTI). Elsie was suffering from frequent periodic episodes of confusion; however this was not due to a diagnosed cognitive disorder. Manos and Braun (2006) and Keenan (2011a) say that elderly patients with a bone fracture or a UTI often present with confusion; which is a disorder of brain function (Manos and Braun, 2006). The elderly are more prone to confusion when they are ill because, with increasing age, kidney size and renal blood flow decrease causing a reduction in renal threshold (Keenan, 2011b). When Elsie was in a confused state I found it difficult to interpret what Elsie was trying to communicate to me because her responses to my questions did not make sense. When communicating with Elsie I consciously used the active listening SOLER (Sit square-on, Open posture, Lean forward, Eye contact, Relax) model (Egan, 2010) that I had been taught at University. I used this to show Elsie I was listening and to help me try to understand what Elsie was communicating. I felt frustrated because although I used SOLER, slowed down my normal pace of communication and repeated what I was saying, Elsie’s responses still did not make sense. The National Health Service (NHS, 2... ...aching on a patient’s personal space. I should therefore use a calm reassuring voice with the use of touch. I find it comforting to know that Oliver and Redfern (1991) say that the use of touch is a skill that can be acquired and learnt. Reflecting on my experience communicating with Elsie I have learnt about two communication techniques (reality orientation and the use of touch) that will help me communicate more effectively with an elderly confused patient. I have realised I need to find out more about using expressive touch in communication and the use of other verbal and non-verbal techniques that can help in communicating with elderly confused patients, such as effective use of paralinguistic communication. This will give me greater confidence in communicating with elderly confused patients because I will have additional strategies to bring to the situation.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Effects of Music Essay

Music and Its Effects on Our Emotions: Can Music Really Change Your Mood? Music can control a much larger part of your life than most people would like to believe. Music can affect us in ways in which we’re not even aware of, and for this reason, music is simply amazing. There is a large number of studies behind music. Not even just the typical music you hear on the radio or that you download from the Internet, but any sounds and the way they can affect your mood and reflect your personallity. It has been proven that certain types of music can evoke sadness, while others can give you an excitement. Music is used in millions of places for this reason. Advertisements. Advertisements and movies are based around the audio! Certain types of music are more likely to evoke emotions in people which will in turn make them feel a certain way. Sometimes this is great for producers in the economy because they can use music in their advertisements to help produce more profits, because people will become much more interested in the products that they’re of fering. This works the same in the film industry. The film industry is interested in inflicting some sort of mood on its audience. If a movie is able to inflict an emotion into people, then the movie is looked upon as a much better movie, and therefore is more likely to make more money. Music can really affect more parts of the economy than you would ever even take into consideration. One amazing thing, that I’m sure you’ve never even stopped to think about, is the music in a casino. They tend to play very uplifting music, music that will make you want to stay longer. Theoretically, the longer you stay in a casino, the more money the casino will make from you. The casino wants to keep you in their business for as long as they can. Music is one way the owners can go about this. Another irrelevant yet interesting method they have is to release scents that cause people to become more satisfied with what they’re doing, and will make them in turn be more comfortable in the environment and want to stay longer, making the casino more money in the long run. Pop, lighter rock, and most dance music tends to be a very uplifting type of music. If you’re ever looking for a booster, listen to some of this music! I actually enjoy listening to this music every day before going to take classes, because it lifts my spirit and helps me make it through the day. Downbeat music such as death metal and rap music tends to affect people’s emotions in a much darker form. However, this is all personal preference and you cannot  base all of this on my opinion. Overall, music has a much greater affect on you than you would believe. Experiment. Listen to new music all the time. See what music gives you chills down your spine. See what music you can’t understand and hate. There’s something out there for everyone. The Effects of Music In some way, music affects everyone. Whether it is, a young girl’s favorite song on the radio, a college student’s escape from reality or a form of entertainment to a married couple, music brings everyone together. Music definitely affects the lifestyles of people in many different ways. The diverse styles of music makes people look and act differently. Music has many different levels. To me, levels meaning; the more independent and progressive the music is, the more the fans take it to the extreme. Music creates style. It causes people to talk, act, and dress the way they do. I hope to discover how much music influences people, especially college students. Also, the more fascinated they are the more influences it has to them. I would like to prove, that to some, music is nothing more than the pop song playing on the radio in the car, and to others, it is a major part of their life. It is very interesting to me, to learn the effects music has toward people. Music impacts everyone in some way (positive or negative), but I think it impacts college students the most. I would like to know the reasons people are listening to music they buy and support. Also, the reasons certain groups are more popular than others. I used a couple various methods of research to conduct my research. I wrote up ten surveys with some questions about gender, age, what they buy, do they attend concerts, and do they support local music. I passed these surveys out to completely random students so there was no imbalance of the results. I hope to find out certain things like: are males affected more than females from music; who buys more clothing/ accessories; is local music important to college students. Another form of research was done by making some observations. I observed places that college students live. I observed a few of my friends apartments very closely and also observed a couple other houses that I was  invited to over the past month. By doing this, I hope to generalize what they like and how it influences them. For example, posters of music groups hanging everywhere will indicate a more of an influence than paintings, by say Picasso. Clothing, jewelry, and actual speech from people may also provide some interesting details. While making these observations, I had also done a couple interviews. A couple were formal, sit-down interviews and the others were just conversations that I thought would be helpful to making my research complete. After giving some thought to my results, I decided to add a section about my personal history. Throughout my life music has affected me in many different ways. It has helped me through some very important decisions, such as, how I feel, who I am with, where I am going to go. When I was ten years old, I got my first guitar. It was an acoustic guitar. I loved to play it, but dreaded going to the lessons. My parents forced me because I couldn’t play a single note. After a year or two things started to come together and I could play some songs. Then I decided to purchase an electric guitar. For me, this was the greatest thing to ever happen to me. I played everyday at any time that I could. My favorite group was the Beastie Boys. My friends and I would pretend we were them and put on shows pretending to be them. As I got older, I would purchase any music that I could; cassette tapes, records, videos, posters, anything that dealt with music. Around seventh or eighth grade, I purchased a used drum set. My other friends all played, so we decided to form a band. We would practice in the garage as much as often until my parents said enough, until it became an obsession. We played a couple of parties (nothing big, because this was the eighth grade), but still a major part of my life at the time. One day during practice, I remember my good friend, the lead singer, telling me booked a real gig, in downtown Pittsburgh. We got a set ready and about a month to practice our songs. The place was called the Electric Banana, it was real dive bar. Most people there were friends and family, but still a nice turnout. Since then I haven’t been playing in a band, but still love making music. Most of my friends are really into music too. We swap music  with each other and talk about it all the time. When I switched schools in high school, music really helped me make some friends. Without music my life would be totally different and a lot more boring, so I’m glad it turned out this way. I am very happy with the results that I got from the surveys. There were ten surveys filled out. Of the ten, six were females and four were males. Eight of the ten all liked rap/hip hop music or said rap along with some other forms. The other two liked rock, punk, or emo. No one put classic rock as their choice (which I found to be very interesting, because I like classic rock). There were two other questions I found to be very much related. Everyone that collects music, any form, (CD, cassette tape, or vinyl) has clothing and/or accessories that support music, for instance, posters, T-shirts, and hats. Four out of ten said they regularly attend concerts. I was very pleased to hear that eight of ten support local musicians/bands. I am a music lover, (as you know) so the local scene is very important to me. Here is a graph I constructed from the surveys. Females Males 60% 40% The interviews came out to be very useful also. I talked to a music lover/musician/collector. His name was Neil and he was very cooperative. We talked about the unusual styles of music he liked. He has a very wide range of music in his collection. We talked about some of his favorite artists, some being Pittsburgh based groups. He loves live music and goes to as many shows as possible. He said â€Å"it’s hard to get to places without a car and with classes† He also said â€Å"I just saw The Roots play for my sixth time last week, at a little place in Oakland.† We were talking about how they are definitely one of his favorites, if he had to pick. I asked him why he was so into music. He replied â€Å"It’s a stress reliever. It takes my mind off school, work, and people’s pettiness.† Another interview that I performed was not as formal. This one was with my dad at the dinner table. It was pretty short and to the point. I asked him if he likes music. He said â€Å"No.† I then asked him if he ever listens to it and he said â€Å"No, when I am in the car I listen to the news or talk radio and when I’m home I’m either working or watching TV.† After doing this research, I realized that by doing interviews you can really feel the emotion from the answers compared to reading a survey. I think that interviews did help me make certain things easier to understand on the survey. The Effects of Music on People’s Emotions By Rachel Mattison, eHow Contributor , last updated July 02, 2012 Movie producers and recording artists use music to manipulate the emotions of audiences to feel everything from excitement to sadness during movies and performances. No one can deny that music has either positive or negative effects on the emotions of listeners. However, music therapy or the study of music’s impact on emotions examines how music cause positive changes in listeners and patients for areas including early childhood development, healing and recovery, and overcoming negative emotions. 1. Early Childhood Development * Music plays an important role in early childhood emotional and intellectual development, according to information compiled by Brad Kennedy and Jennifer Durst. Their research confirms that even while in the womb, babies can tell the differences between certain types of music. Also called prenatal stimulation this technique has many positive effects including higher levels of intelligence and creativity, along with the ability to calm down when listening to music. Suggested usages for music in early childhood development include teaching children to analyze songs so they can learn how to express and identify their emotions, though processes, behaviors and situations as a way of developing cognitive and motor skills. Healing and Recovery * The American Music Therapy Organization states music therapy can  allow â€Å"emotional intimacy with families and caregivers, relaxation for the entire family, and meaningful time spent together in a positive, creative way.† Additional studies show that music therapy can cause changes in physiology by releasing brain chemicals including melatonin, norephinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin and prolactin, which help to reduce depression, regulate mood and make patients feel calm and more able to sleep. Doctors have used music therapy to help stroke, cerebral palsy and Parkinson’s patients improve. Dr. Suzanne Hasner says head trauma and dementia patients retain music ability because â€Å"deep in our long-term memory is this rehearsed music. It is processed in the emotional part of the brain, the amygdala. Here’s where you remember the music played at your wedding, the music of your first love, that first dance. Such things can still be remembered even in people with progressive diseases. It can be a window, a way to reach them.† * Negative Emotions and Fear Management * Dr. Zbigniew Kucharski, from the Medical Academy of Warsaw, has studied the effects of music when used for fear management in dental patients. He discovered that children who listened to 30 minutes of music preceding and following dental procedures were less likely to experience negative feelings. Another study, â€Å"Quantification of the effects of listening to music as a noninvasive method of pain control,† conducted in 1992 found that relaxing music helped to reduce anxiety and pain in patients undergoing certain medical procedures including painful gynecological procedures and pediatric surgical burn units. How Music Affects Us and Promotes Health Music is one of the few activities that involves using the whole brain. It is intrinsic to all cultures and can have surprising benefits not only for learning language, improving memory and focusing attention, but also for physical coordination and development. Of course, music can be distracting if it’s too loud or too jarring, or if it competes for our attention with what we’re trying to do. But for the most part, exposure to many kinds of music has beneficial effects: 1Music heals Effective therapy for pain Overall, music does have positive effects on pain management. Music can help reduce both the sensation and distress of both chronic pain and postoperative pain. Listening to music can reduce chronic pain from a range of painful conditions, including osteoarthritis, disc problems and rheumatoid arthritis, by up to 21% and depression by up to 25%, according to a paper in the latest UK-based Journal of Advanced Nursing29. Music therapy is increasingly used in hospitals to reduce the need for medication during childbirth, to decrease postoperative pain and complement the use of anesthesia during surgery30. There are several theories about how music positively affects perceived pain: * 1. Music serves as a distractor * 2. Music may give the patient a sense of control * 3. Music causes the body to release endorphins to counteract pain * 4. Slow music relaxes person by slowing their breathing and heartbeat Reducing blood pressure By playing recordings of relaxing music every morning and evening, people with high blood pressure can train themselves to lower their blood pressure – and keep it low31. According to research reported at the American Society of Hypertension meeting in New Orleans, listening to just 30 minutes of classical, Celtic or raga music every day may significantly reduce high blood pressure. Medicine for the heart music is good for your heart. Research shows that it is musical tempo, rather than style. Italian and British researchers32 recruited young men and women, half of whom were trained musicians. The participants slipped on head phones and listened to six styles of music, including rap and classical pieces, with random two-minute pauses. As the participants kicked back and listened, the researchers monitored their breathing, heart rates and blood pressure. The participants had faster heart and breathing rates when they listened to lively music. When the musical slowed, so did their heart and breathing rates. Some results were surprising. During the musical pauses, heart and breathing rates normalized or reached more optimal levels. Whether or not a person liked the style of music did not matter. The tempo, or pace, of the music had the greatest effect on relaxation. Speeds Post-Stroke Recovery A daily portion` of one’s favorite pop melodies, classical music or jazz can speed recovery from debilitating strokes, according to the latest research. When stroke patients in Finland listened to music for a couple of hours each day, verbal memory and attention span improved significantly compared to patients who received no musical stimulation, or who listened only to stories read out loud, the study reports33. Chronic headaches & migraine remedy Music can help migraine34 and chronic headache35 sufferers reduce the intensity, frequency, and duration of the headaches. Music boosts immunity Music can boost the immune function. Scientists explain that a particular type of music can create a positive and profound emotional experience, which leads to secretion of immune-boosting hormones22. This helps contribute to a reduction in the factors responsible for illness. Listening to music or singing can also decrease levels of stress-related hormone cortisol. Higher levels of cortisol can lead to a decreased immune response23-24. 2Effects of music on the brain Music enhances intelligence, learning and IQ The idea that music makes you smarter received considerable attention from scientists and the media. Listening to music or playing an instrument can actually make you learn better. And research confirms this. Music has the power to enhance some kinds of higher brain function: * Reading and literacy skills11-13 * Spatial-temporal reasoning14-15 * Mathematical abilities16-17 – Even children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder benefit in mathematics tests from listening to music beforehand. *Emotional intelligence The Mozart effect Earlier it has been thought that listening to classical music, particularly Mozart, enhances performance on cognitive tests. However, recent findings18 show that listening to any music that is personally enjoyable has positive effects on cognition. Music improves memory performance The power of music to affect memory is quite intriguing. Mozart’s music and baroque music, with a 60 beats per minute beat pattern, activates the left and right brain. The simultaneous left and right brain action maximizes learning and retention of information. The information being studied activates the left brain while the music activates the right brain. Also, activities which engage both sides of the brain at the same time, such as playing an instrument or singing, cause the brain to be more capable of processing information. Listening to music facilitates the recall of information19. Researchers have shown that certain types of music are a great â€Å"keys† for recalling memories. Information learned while listening to a particular song can often be recalled simply by â€Å"playing† the songs mentally. Musical training has even better effect than just listening to classical music. There is clear evidence20, that children who take music lessons develop a better memory compared with children who have no musical training. Note: For learning or memory performance, it’s important that music doesn’t have a vocal component; otherwise you’re more likely to remember the words of the background song than what you’re supposed to be recalling. Music improves concentration and attention Easy listening music or relaxing classics improves the duration and intensity of concentration in all age groups and ability levels. It’s not clear what type of music is better, or what kind of musical structure is necessary to help, but many studies have shown significant effects21. 3Music improves physical performance Music improves athletic performance Choosing music that motivates you will make it easier to start moving, walking, dancing, or any other type of exercise that you enjoy. Music can make exercise feel more like recreation and less like work. Furthermore, music enhances athletic performance6-8! Anyone who has ever gone on a long run with their iPod or taken a particularly energetic spinning class knows that music can make the time pass more quickly. The four central hypotheses explaining music’s facilitation of exercise performance include: * Reduction in the feeling of fatigue * Increase in levels of psychological arousal * Physiological relaxation response * Improvement in motor coordination Music improves body movement and coordination Music reduces muscle tension and improves body movement and coordination25-26. Music may play an important role in developing, maintaining and restoring physical functioning in the rehabilitation of persons with movement disorders. 4Music helps to work more productively Fatigue fighter Listening to upbeat music can be a great way to find some extra energy. Music can effectively eliminate exercise-induced fatigue9 and fatigue symptoms caused by monotonous work10. Keep in mind that listening to too much pop and hard rock music can make you more jittery than energized. Vary what you listen to and find out what type of music is most beneficial for you. You could try classical music one day, pop the next day and jazz the third. Music improves productivity Many people like to listen to music while they work and I am certainly one of them. How about you? Did you know you can perform better at your work with music? Whilst there may be many reasons for wishing to listen to music in the workplace, it really improves your productivity27! According to a report in the journal Neuroscience of Behavior and Physiology28, a person’s ability to recognize visual images, including letters and numbers, is faster when either rock or classical music is playing in the background. 5Music calms, relaxes and helps to sleep Relaxing music induces sleep Relaxing classical music is safe, cheap and easy way to beat insomnia1. Many people who suffer from insomnia find that Bach music helps them. Researchers have shown that just 45 minutes of relaxing music before bedtime can make for a restful night2. Relaxing music reduces sympathetic nervous system activity, decreases anxiety, blood pressure, heart and respiratory rate and may have positive effects on sleep via muscle relaxation and distraction  from thoughts. Music reduces stress and aids relaxation Listening to slow, quiet classical music, is proven to reduce stress3. Countless studies have shown that music’s relaxing effects can be seen on anyone, including newborns. One of the great benefits of music as a stress reliever is that it can be used while you do your usual deeds so that it really doesn’t take time. How does music reduces stress? * Physical relaxation. Music can promote relaxation of tense muscles, enabling you to easily release some of the tension you carry from a stressful day. * Aids in stress relief activities. Music can help you get â€Å"into the zone† when practicing yoga, self hypnosis or guided imagery, can help you feel energized when exercising and recover after exercising, help dissolve the stress when you’re soaking in the tub. * Reduces negative emotions. Music, especially upbeat tunes, can take your mind off what stresses you, and help you feel more optimistic and positive. This helps release stress and can even help you keep from getting as stressed over life’s little frustrations in the future. Researchers discovered4 that music can decrease the amount of the cortisol, a stress-related hormone produced by the body in response to stress. 6Music improves mood and decreases depression Prescription for the blues Music’s ability to â€Å"heal the soul† is the stuff of legend in every culture. Many people find that music lifts their spirits. Modern research tends to confirm music’s psychotherapeutic benefits5. Bright, cheerful music (e.g. Mozart, Vivaldi, bluegrass, Klezmer, Salsa, reggae) is the most obvious prescription for the blues. The 5 Weirdest Ways Music Can Mess With the Human Brain By: C. Coville, Kathy Benjamin February 11, 2011 1,619,046 views The entire reason music exists is because of its almost magical ability to push your buttons. An upbeat song gets you going, a sad song makes you cry and drink. But the more science studies music’s effect on the human brain, the more bizarre things we discover. For instance †¦ #5. It Changes Your Ability to Perceive Time  old music — the stuff you hear on the line when you call everyone from the bank to your local bail bond agency — didn’t fall into America’s phone lines by accident. It’s designed specifically to reduce the amount of time you think you’re waiting, so that you’re less likely to hang up in anger. Other places that involve waiting, such as doctors’ offices, use a similar trick. Time shrinkage is also the aim of most retail stores, which is why you’ll rarely enter a mall, supermarket or clothing store without hearing some sort of music in the background. How the hell does music do that? To understand why exactly music makes it seem like less time has passed, think of the human brain as a mountain lion that is eating a bag of money. It doesn’t matter what the zookeepers distract it with — food, shiny objects or just shouting and yelling. All that matters is that they give another zookeeper the chance to sneak up and retrieve the money while the lion is busy deciding which one of them to eat. Similarly, when your brain is steadily distracted, you’ll be less likely to notice things around you in detail, and this includes the passage of time. Our brains have limited input capacity, and when something else is using up that capacity, we’re less likely to think things like, â€Å"I’ve been standing in line to get Richard Moll’s autograph for three goddamn hours† or â€Å"Do I really need this Garfield alarm clock?† But it works the opposite way, too. In some situations, listening to music can actually expand perceived time. For example, listening to music while performing tasks that require concentration will usually cause us to overestimate the amount of time that has passed. The theory is that as your mind switches back and forth between perception of the music and concentration on the challenging tasks, it forms separate â€Å"events,† or distinct memories. When your brain thinks about what you’ve been doing for the past hour, you’ll remember more of these events and recall that the hour was quite long. Experiments have found that time also expands when we’re listening to familiar music that we dislike. When we hear the opening chords of a song, our brain remembers the whole thing and immediately skips ahead and plays it mentally. This fake mind-music is  extremely vivid, working on exactly the same parts of the brain as actual music does. So the effect is that you take a few moments to vividly imagine that you’re sitting through five minutes of that damn New Radicals song before you come back to reality only to realize that you still actually have to sit through it. #4. It Taps Into Primal Fear OK, imagine how you would sound for a second if you saw your friend Jason across the street and wanted to get his attention by yelling his name. Now imagine you see your friend Jason across the street, suddenly realize a car is careening down the road about to hit him, and shout his name to warn him.Despite the fact that you are yelling the same thing both times, even in your head you can hear how the two sound different. Human beings have a very good, very nuanced sense of what kind of noise indicates a greeting and what kind of noise indicates you are about to be mauled by a honey badger. And that sense is being used against you in every scary movie you have ever seen. There is a reason that horror films scare the crap out of us, and it’s not just the creepy settings, dramatic buildup and sudden reveal of the bad guy RIGHT BEHIND YOU. It’s the music. How the hell does music do that? There are certain sounds that humans will automatically associate with sudden and painful death because they tap into our evolutionary fear of the screams of other animals (and other human beings). Screams of fear in almost any animal are made up of what scientists have dubbed â€Å"discordant noises.† Any noise that makes you feel very unpleasant falls into this category. We know if we hear other living things making those discordant noises that we have to get the fuck out, because something bad is going to happen. Movie directors know this and make good use of it when deciding on the score for a film. That dramatic buildup and subsequent scary reveal is almost always accompanied by really freaky music or somebody screaming his ass off (or both). But this technique is hardly limited to horror movies. For instance, in his original draft of The Social Network, Andy Sorkin wanted a song called â€Å"Love of the Common People† to play over the opening credits scene. Here’s what that would have looked like: That poppy calypso music makes you feel that everything is dandy. Sure, Mark Zuckerberg has just been dumped,  but it’s all OK! He’s running through the Harvard campus and is about to invent Facebook and become a billionaire. Yay!Listen to that lower-level background music throughout. It sounds like random, angry notes played behind a simple piano tune, and those notes are creating discordant sound. Suddenly you’re apprehensive, feeling like something really bad is about to happen (we’re talking getting sued for $64 million bad). So next time you’re getting a little too freaked out by a movie, remember that muting the television is a far better decision than looking away. #3. It Makes You Stronger It’s no secret that many people prefer to listen to music when they work out. But music doesn’t just make physical activity more pleasant — it actually makes our physical performance measurably better. When listening to music, people are able to hold heavy weights for longer than when they’re standing in silence. They can also complete sprints in smaller amounts of time and are even able to reduce their oxygen intake. How the hell does music do that? Similar to the time-perception effect we referenced above, one element is just plain old distraction. Obviously, if your mind is listening to music, it’s not thinking about how much your legs hurt or how much longer you’ve got to run before the treadmill makes that final beeping noise. But there’s much more to it than that. First, there’s synchronicity. When you match your movements to a steady musical tempo, you spend less time and effort on the inefficient slowing down and speeding up that happens when you’re going by your own rhythm. Music also increases the incidence of â€Å"flow† states — states of meditation-like calm in which everything works right for an athlete and that is strongly linked to enhanced performance. Music can even make you feel less pain. Patients listening to music after surgery need less sedatives, report less pain and have lower blood pressure. As if that’s not impressive enough, doctors have found that specially selected melodic music dramatically reduces stress in patients during unsedated brain surgery. In some cases, music caused patients to relax so much that many of them fell into a deep sleep, while people sliced into their exposed brains with fucking scalpels. And even if you’re lucky enough to be asleep during  surgery, there’s a good chance the doctors working on you are listening to music, since most surgeons believe it improves their performance, too. So the next time you’re about to go under a general anesthetic, consider the fact that the guy with the scalpel might soon be timing his incisions to Whitesnake. #2. It Changes Your Drinking Habits Did you ever wake up in the back of a taxi after a long night of tossing down cognac and prune juice and wonder how your pants got replaced by a thick but clumsily applied coat of colorful body paint? Well, now there’s something to blame it on besides your bad childhood: music. What they play in the bar doesn’t just affect how much you drink, but what you drink. How the hell does music do that? Did you know you can make a person buy more expensive wine just by playing classical music? Experiments prove it. It makes people feel like they’re in a wine commercial or in a movie depicting refined, snooty rich people. OK, that one sort of makes sense — we doubt anyone ever drank Wild Irish Rose while listening to Vivaldi. But in another blind study, different types of music playing in the background caused drinkers to change how they’d described the drinks they already had. Laid-back music led people to rate drinks as â€Å"mellow,† and upbeat music resulted in more people calling their drinks â€Å"refreshing.† Even stranger, in another study researchers placed German and French wines in supermarkets, with small flags next to each display so customers could tell which countries they came from. They then played some unobtrusive international music in the background. When German music was played, the percentage of German sales rose, and vice versa. This wasn’t because customers thought to themselves, Ah! Germany! I will celebrate the Fatherland with some nice wine! Questionnaires showed that customers couldn’t recall what type of music was playing and thought they’d chosen a particular wine simply because they’d felt like it. The people selling you the drinks know all of this stuff — or at least, the successful ones do. We’ve pointed out before that bars and nightclubs often play fast music to increase alcohol-based profit. But other establishments, particularly upscale restaurants, prefer slow, relaxing music, which,  believe it or not, can also make you drink more. The tempo of music is linked to your body’s arousal level, or the â€Å"speed† at which your nervous system operates. Fast music heightens arousal (heh), so patrons will do everything more quickly, including eating and drinking and leaving their infant by the salad bar. Which is good for a restaurant owner if he’s just concerned with getting you out the door so he can serve more (and presumably better) people. On the other hand, slower music means that you eat at a more leisurely pace. Maybe you’ll even stay to chat with your companions after you’re done with your meal. All this time passing means you’re likely to buy more drinks every time the waiter comes around to ask, and at a restaurant that’s charging $70 a bottle, that makes up for any lost table space. Some restaurants go as far as to purchase a personalized selection of songs specially designed by â€Å"sound branding† companies, which select songs based on whatever tempo or atmosphere the restaurant is aiming to achieve. #1. It Makes You a Better Communicator How does a narcissistic ass like John Mayer, who isn’t even that attractive, still have hot women of all ages throwing themselves at him? It’s the guitar, isn’t it?Actually, a trained musician like Mayer would probably be able to talk a woman into his bed without ever even playing a note. It turns out that studying music gives you an advantage when it comes to perceiving the emotions of others, so all those years of being chained to a piano as a child are finally going to work in your favor. People who can play instruments at near-professional level can detect subtle emotional changes and intonations in the vocal tones of others. In other words, they know whether you are actually sad when you say you’re fine, even when most non-musicians would have no idea. Not only that, but the fact that they studied music makes them better able to tune out background noise, so they are even better at paying attention to what you are saying in that crowded restaurant or bar. How the hell does music do that? Research shows that people who have studied music actually have brains wired differently than non-musicians. This rewiring makes them better able to express emotions they are feeling, but it also makes them more able to understand the emotions others express. Music is very emotional, and people  wired to understand those subtle emotional changes can also detect them in the vocal tones of someone talking. The emotion of the music translates to knowing when your boss is secretly mad or your mother is secretly disappointed. The sooner you start learning music, the more pronounced this re-wiring is. Scientists think that teaching children music might help kids with autism better understand vocal cues and encode speech. The fact that this brain re-wiring helps them tune out background noise could also help kids stay focused in noisy classrooms. It is also something that gets better the more you play, so sticking to your piano lessons now could lead to a powerful advantage in your future dating world. Read more: Music is one of many important parts of our lives because it can be an approach not only to reduce each of our mental tension but also to inspire our feelings in artistic sense. Then, there are only two subtopics to develop into two paragraphs in the body: 1) music is an approach to reduce people’s mental tension 2) music inspires people’s feelings in artistic sense

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Kings philosophy Essay

The aim of this essay is to critically evaluate platos justification of rule by philosopher kings. First the essay will try and stress how plato understood the way the state has to be governed in conjunction with philosophy. In Platos most famous work Republic he puts forward the view that only the study of philosophy would allow man to see what was good and just. Therefore to cure the ills of society it would be necessary to either make kings philosophers or make philosophers kings. I intend to show how Plato justifies this view and then attempt to point out some possible problems with this justification . Platos starting point was his recognition that justice was one of four cardinal virtues, along with wisdom, courage and moderation, that when working harmoniously together in a high level of order – he felt equaled the elusive good life . Kahn and Charles (2004). Plato thought that the best way to discover what justice was, was to create a perfect soul – this he did by first creating a theoretical perfect city , which would have a good soul and all four virtues. Using the theory that the polis is the individual writ large he intended to compare his perfect city with a perfect person and subsequently evaluate justiceTarà ¡ (2001) Plato s perfect city was to be a model of order, efficiency and discipline. Above all it would be governed by the strict adherence to what White refers to as the natural division of labour . This was to take the form of vocational and social division within the city. Everyone had one job in order to specialise and become good at it. We forbade our shoemaker to try his hand at farming or weaving or building and told him to stick to his last, in order that our shoemaking should be well done. Kierkegaard, (1992). More fundamentally however the city was to be divided into three distinct social classes, in which pe ople would be raised from birth. These classes consisted of the producers, the guardians and the rulers. These correlated to a high degree with their microcosm in the individual soul in which they took the form of reason, spirit/emotion and appetite/desire. The producers were to be the farmers and artisans who were responsible for the supply of food, clothing and other such essential but basic needs. They would be highly specialized and allowed money and private property as their main incentive. In the individual soul the producers equated to desire as they were not governed by true reason. In the same way that ungoverned desire e.g. I must eat this cake even though it is not mine, created conflict in an individual that must  be controlled, the producers were susceptible to the temptation to take land with better soil or more area for example. Therefore a second class was necessary – to protect from both internal and external threats and keep both the city and the soul in order. The perfect city maintained order by using guardians, the guardians were the warrior class that protected the city. These warrior characteristics made them a potential internal threat, so Plato decided to neutralise volatile factors such as greed or envy by denying the guardians access to money or private property. The guardians equate to the spirited or emotional side of the soul, which was usually tamed by reason, but might spontaneously follow desire. Nails, (2006) The third class in the perfect city is by far the most important and complex. Rulers were chosen from the guardian class on the basis of aptitude (but with some degree of assumption of hereditary traits). Plato felt that as a pre-requisite to rule they must have a thorough understanding of the theory of forms including the essence of justice and the other virtues and ultimately the true essence of good by grasping which the philosopher will finally achieve a full understanding of all the rest. Vlastos,(2006) . Plato explains in his allegory of the cave, along with his theory of the line and the sun, how the philosophers who understand the theory of forms are the only ones with true objectivity and how the rest of society is merely staring at shadows – mistaking them for reality and so they would believe that the shadows of the objects we mentioned were in all respects real Therefore by the theory of forms a philosopher is able to release himself from the subjective world of the rest of humanity and enter the world of objective views. Salli (1999). The distinctive step which Plato has taken by the time of the republic is to suggest that forms which are the object of definition are entities in themselves, subsisting outside time and space, in which particular things come to share or which they imitate . The ruler class then is selected by aptitude and educated through a rigorous process until his understanding of the theory of forms is so complete that he understands the forms of the virtues of justice and even good, this then entitles him to rule. Plato connected the rulers with the reason aspect of soul. Just as the rulers were able to judge right or wrong for the city, the souls calculating part told a person the rational side of a situation. Plato  consolidated all of this with the myth of metals taught to all, whereby the rulers had gold in their veins, the guardians silver and the producers iron and bronze, but they were all brothers and should all be happy in their situation. For the perfect city all three classes must work in harmony – the producers making materials, the guardians protecting and ensuring stability from both above and below, and the rulers determining through their enlightened reason what was good or bad. The soul would work in a similarway. Melchert, (2002) Plato felt that he had now found justice through the concept of the ideal city and soul. If the soul was in order then the cardinal virtues of wisdom, courage, moderation and justice would exist in the person. The wisdom was present in the rulers of the city and the calculating part of the soul. The courage was present in the guardians of the city and the spirited part of the soul. Moderation was found when all three groups of the city and soul worked together, moderation was best seen in the soul when all three parts were equal, moderation showed harmony. Justice was created when every part was doing what it was supposed to do. With all of these different parts put together Plato created what he considered to be the ideal city and soul. Vlastos,(2006). It can be seen from his point of view, therefore, that philosophers must be rulers as they are the only ones with true objective understanding of justice and good as defined by Plato and are therefore the only ones competent to lead t he rest of the population towards them. There are however a number of problems with Platos argument. In his ideal city where philosophers are kings, it is necessary for order and efficiency that everybody sticks just to their own job – this is fine in theory but would soon lead to a lack of unity through a lack of understanding, empathy and therefore sympathy. Without these the obligation to help each other would soon be overrun by a lack of motivation. This would throw the whole system out of kilter. Plato may have argued that this may have been circumvented by education but he seems fairly a dam Anton a strict division of labour. This phenomenom would also spread to natural disaster, for example if the city was to burn down there may be insufficient carpenters to rebuild it, or insufficient doctors to treat disease. Plato himself admits that once philosophers gain the knowledge of the good they would usually prefer to reflect on it, rather than sully themselves in actual politics. To go back to the allegory of the cave, once they have discovered the real world, what motivation would they have to enter the dark world of the cave and participate in the pointless games? He argues that they will do it because they are just men and that their reluctance is not only a good thing but is actually necessary as it prevents dissension and strife over who shall rule. I think that in reality some would be unable to overcome their reluctance and that those who do enter face a very large chance of being corrupted by their superior knowledge. Plato makes the huge assumption that knowledge of the good is sufficient motivation to act in a just way, this, I feel , is a very dangerous assumption and the corrupting influence of power has been proved time and again throughout history. As Karl Popper quotes I think we must face the fact that behind the sovereignty of the philosopher king stands the quest for power. Argument can also be found in the works of Aristotle that dispute Plato s claim that philosophers should be king. Aristotle felt that Plato relied far too heavily on theory and disagreed with Plato s theory of forms, instead believing that actual instances in this world (rather than other-worldly forms) were the key to universals. This heavier reliance on experience allowed a more amateur approach, rather than years of formal training, to be acceptable. Another argument against Philosopher kings stems from the Christian influence. The core-belief of Christianity was that faith, rather than reason, held the key to salvation and so the good life , This created the need for a separate private and public sphere that would be unacceptable in Plato s ideal city. This would be compounded by the democratising effect of faith – which all can have, rather than reason which is restricted to the few. In modern times the faith aspect of the separation of public and private spheres has significantly diminished, however it has been replaced by a fierce belief in individualism that is underwritten by a nebulas concept of equality enshrined in individual rights and constitutional checks, perhaps based ultimately on the free-for-all concept of capitalism. Nails,(2006). In conclusion can be observed that even during platos days the philosopher king could have been difficult to achieve  because let alone any other since then given the nullifyi ng concepts from Aristotle to Christianity to Capitalism. I tend to agree to some extent with Karl Poppers view that Plato allowed himself to be seduced by the idea (as many others have since) that he (and his theoretical like in the philosopher-kings) were the only ones that could see objectively and so should rule. It is a trap more dangerous, possibly, than any other and democracy (in the modern, rather than Greek sense), its antithesis, is a far safer – if far less than perfect alternative. REFFERENCES Kahn, Charles H. (2004). â€Å"The Framework†. Plato and the socratic dialogue: The Philosophical Use of a Literary Form. Cambridge University Press Kierkegaard, Sà ¸ren (1992). â€Å"Plato†. The Concept of Irony. Princeton University Press Nails, Debra (2006). â€Å"The Life of Plato of Athens†. A Companion to Plato edited by Hugh H. Benson. Blackwell Publishing Tarà ¡n, Leonardo (2001). Collected Papers 1962-1999. Brill Academic Publishers Kraut, Richard (Ed.) (1993). The Cambridge Companion to Plato. Cambridge University Press Melchert, Norman (2002). The Great Conversation: A Historical Introduction to Philosophy. McGraw Hill. Salli John (1999). Chorology: On Beginning in Plato’s â€Å"Timaeus†. Indiana University Press Vlastos, Gregory(2006). Plato’s Universe – with a new Introducution by Luc Brisson, Parmenides Publishing

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

The king and the French Rev. essays

The king and the French Rev. essays Could the King have averted the revolution? If so how? The king could have definitely averted the revolution and in a multitude of ways. The following essay will elaborate on how exactly he could have done so. Firstly, one of the main long term causes of the revolution was the losing of respect and confidence in the government due to the individual personality of the king. If, from the start, the king had behaved in a dignified manner and took his duties seriously, most probably, the revolution could have been averted. Louis XVI was very timid and refused to give constant support to his ministers (example: Turgot) reform plans. This led to a failure of making reforms over a long period of time and making the reforms only when an absolute crisis occurred. It was this sudden change that contributed to the revolution. Not only that, the king could have discouraged the intriguing of certain ministers to bring others down, but instead adopted a divide and rule policy, because he was weak. This undermining of fellow ministers is one of the factors led to Calonne failing in the Assembly of Notables, which led to the eventual calling of the Estates-General. Furthermore, at the meeting of the Estates-General, the king could have resolved the issue of whether to vote by head or by Estate, and could have hence gained control of the Estates-General meeting. Instead, he didnt do anything and this culminated in the national Assembly being formed and the 3rd Estate taking the law into their own hands; which eventually led to the revolution. Also, at the royal session (after the tennis court oath), the king introduced reforms that the people wanted to hear. However, he introduced them too late for the people to be completely satisfied. He should have introduced them much earlier. He was also supportive of feudal dues and privileges in his speech and also said that whatever the National Assembly had done un ...

Monday, October 21, 2019

Characther Essay For Lamb To The Slaughter Essays - Fiction

Characther Essay For Lamb To The Slaughter Essays - Fiction Characther Essay For Lamb To The Slaughter Character Essay Characterization, a method that an author chooses to develop his/her character, is a very important element in a story. In Lamb to the Slaughter, Roald Dahl, effectively develops the protagonist both directly and indirectly; however, the use of indirect characterization is more dominant because it reveals her actions and how she deals with her conflict, her words, and creating a dynamic character with her words, and her personality. First, she seems like a typical house-wife longing for her husband to return, but something is odd about this particular day; There was a slow smiling air about her, and about everything she didwas curiously tranquilthe eyes, with their new placid look, seemed larger, and darker than before (108). It was almost as if she is expecting something unusual to happen, and that she is preparing for that specific moment. In addition, her actions change from being a wife-pleasing-husband, to a self-conscious woman that knew all of a sudden, exactly what to do, as if she had been prepared for months. Also, in the beginning of the story she is described as a inoffensive, harmless person, but immediately after her husband reveals his burden, she becomes unstable and almost naturally she hits her husband. She simply walked up behind him and without any pause she swung the big frozen leg of lamband brought it down as hard as she could (111). And as strange as it looks, she goes somewhat through a metamorphoses, from being a content house-wife, to a maniac, possessed woman, to the point of killing her husband. Second, she reveals through her words, her duplicity and deceitfulness by exterminating all the evidence left. When the police arrived she trying to hide evidence, asks for her husbands whiskey, Jackwould you mind giving me a drink?You mean this whiskey?Yes, pleaseWhy dont you eat up that lamb that is in the oven? (115,116), and the reader realizes that she tries to convince others with her deceitful lies, and with a concrete set of credible words, she gets away easily; She tried a smile. It came out so peculiarThe voice sounded so peculiar tooShe rehearsed it several times more (112). Mrs. Maloney, had thought about it even before the incident happened, for she tries to look as normal as possible, by acting it out her daily routine. Finally, her personality creates in her a dynamic characterization, and as the reader observes it when she is talking to the shopkeeper, by saying something very odd: I got a nice leg of lamb from the freezerI dont much like cooking it frozenbut Im taking a chance on it this time. You think itll be alltight? (112). What she was really referring, was what she had done just minutes ago. But when she said , at the end, to him if itll be allright? she revealed a weak, fragile nature as if she had been pulled out of a protective coat all of a sudden and left naked, for she is described by the narrator as a loving and faithful wife, who is willing to do anything for her husband. Moreover, at the end when she offers the leg of lamb to the officers, she does another extraordinary act; And in the other room, Mary Maloney began to giggle (116). And by doing so, she was declaring that she was indeed independent, and was mature enough to make her own decisions based on what she thought was the b est, not others. Roald Dahl, developed the protagonist successfully in Lamb to the Slaughter, through a way that is important in this short story. Where indirect characterization is the most predominant in the protagonists actions, words, and how the author creates a convincing dynamic character, which reflects it in the body itself.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

What Are Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Adjective Clauses

What Are Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Adjective Clauses An adjective clause functions almost exactly like a solo adjective, to modify a noun. Adjectival clauses  are dependent clauses, and usually begin with a relative pronoun (which, that, who, whom  or whose) or a relative adverb (where, when, and why).   There are two main types of  adjectival  clauses: nonrestrictive and restrictive. Heres a little bit about how to distinguish between the two.   Nonrestrictive Adjective Clauses An adjective clause set off from the main clause by commas is said to be nonrestrictive. Heres an example: Old Professor Legree, who dresses like a teenager, is going through his second childhood. This who clause is nonrestrictive because the information in the clause doesnt restrict or limit the noun it modifies ( Old Professor Legree). The commas signify that the adjective clause provides added, not essential, information. Restrictive Adjective Clauses On the other hand, an adjective clause that is restrictive should not be set off by commas. An older person who dresses like a teenager is often an object of ridicule. Here, the adjective clause restricts or limits the meaning of the noun it modifies ( An older person). A restrictive adjective clause is not set off by commas. So to review, here are the basic rules. An adjective clause that can be omitted from a sentence without affecting the basic meaning of the sentence should be set off by commas and is nonrestrictive. An adjective clause that cannot be omitted from a sentence without affecting the basic meaning of the sentence should not be set off by commas and is restrictive Practice Identifying Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Clauses For each sentence below, decide if the adjective clause (in bold) is restrictive or nonrestrictive. When youre done, check your answers at the bottom of the page. Students who have young children are invited to use the free daycare center.I left my son at the campus daycare center, which is free to all full-time students.John Wayne, who appeared in over 200 movies, was the biggest box-office attraction of his time.I refuse to live in any house that Jack built.Merdine, who was born in a boxcar somewhere in Arkansas, grows homesick every time she hears the wail of a train whistle.My new running shoes, which cost more than a hundred dollars, fell apart during the marathon.I lent some money to Earl, whose house was destroyed in the flood.The thing that impresses me the most about America is the way parents obey their children.A physician who smokes and overeats has no right to criticize the personal habits of his patients.The beer that made Milwaukee famous has made a loser out of me. Answers RestrictiveNonrestrictiveNonrestrictiveRestrictiveNonrestrictiveNonrestrictiveNonrestrictiveRestrictiveRestrictiveRestrictive

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Globalization, International Manufactures And Service Providers Essay

Globalization, International Manufactures And Service Providers - Essay Example Therefore, globalization connects people and tends to manipulate activities, especially in the economic perspectives to have a common objective. Additionally, globalization promotes the sharing of resources across the globe. Globalization examines operations of various institutions. Besides, economic and religious perspectives, with regards on how to build the world society, necessitate globalization. The main purpose of globalization is to control the problems that the world today faces especially in dealing with the environment and inequality. Therefore, the study of globalization encourages connection of people from different and diverse areas, to come together and solve some of the main problems in the world today. This is done through sharing of trade activities and promotion of equality in terms of resources. On the other hand, international managers facilitate promotion of globalization. They negotiate alliances, deal with the government officials and motivate diverse workforc e (Betty& Oded, 2004, p 478). Therefore, managers play a central function in regulating globalization across the globe.

Friday, October 18, 2019

The Bureaucracy as an Effective System of Organization Essay - 2

The Bureaucracy as an Effective System of Organization - Essay Example This paper illustrates that bureaucracy as the system has grown into the complex, which over the years neither the employees nor the leadership has been able to understand and control effectively. With its main goal to control productivity of work and its successful completion, the concept of bureaucracy felt the urgent need in improving its reliability, efficiency, and effectiveness. Inside the bureaucratic organization, the concept of bureaucracy helps the leaders and managers to design their work in an effective way by breaking down the process of performance into departments that in the same time breaks down work into simpler tasks. When the organization uses the bureaucratic system, it keeps power and directs control, creating at the same time more people with limited knowledge whose actions are more mechanical. However, such structural way of performing one’s activities limits employees in their ability to execute their tasks effectively. While the organizations have too many rules and regulations, the way they work and conduct their policy is too severe toward cooperation with the other organizations and own employees. The situation has become even more alarming, as the top level of the bureaucracy has become a less effective instrument. Many people do not think regulations and procedures so important; however, bureaucracy within the organization guarantees proper and equal treatment to its all members. On one hand, the procedures and rules serve its best in order to ensure excellent performance of an organization’s activities.

Arguments for anti-feminism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Arguments for anti-feminism - Essay Example Are women deprived of rights in society as pointed out in lieu of the feminist view or are women appropriately designated with responsibilities fit for their nature compared to the status of men? It is evident that feminism is a concept motivated by the quest for social justice of individuals who believe that women are disadvantaged in society. I consider feminism as both an intellectual commitment and a political movement that seeks equality for women and the end of sexism in all forms. As James characterizes it, â€Å"feminism is grounded on the belief that women are deprived of certain rights and oppressed by comparison with men, and that their oppression is in some way illegitimate or unjustified†, (276). Crow adds that, â€Å"injustices to women are referred to as the imposition of weak roles to women from roles at home and at work to the bigger part of societal functions†, (1). I will prove in this discussion that the feminist claim, that is, women are denied equal rights by being secondary to men is unsound. As Okin makes the point, â€Å"subordination of women in the context of a family is nothing but a role which could be fulfilled as a role in the family†, (68). I can clearly see that housekeeping functions are allocated to women because a family is a relationship built from the cooperation of the partners. Male partners should handle the financial burden since they are more productive and their biological structure provides for the competitive work advantage. With the role of income generation left to the responsibility of men, housekeeping in general should just be naturally assigned to women. In addition, it could easily be argued that men should be given the responsibility to have better compensation â€Å"because of their role in the labor market† (Bergmann 112). Men deserve to get the top spot in the market of jobs and be remunerate d better relative to women due to their abilities. It is the goal of feminism as well to eliminate the culture in

Thursday, October 17, 2019

SIMULATION REFECTION Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

SIMULATION REFECTION - Essay Example Even though I am now a senior nursing student I still get anxious when I have to confront real world situations because I am afraid of making a wrong decision that would compromise a patient’s health. This is the reason why it takes me a long time to get a nursing diagnosis. Mostly I double check with another nurse to be sure that I am doing the right thing. 2) Did you miss anything in getting report on these patients? If so why? Were you distracted? Did you receive too little information? Did you receive not enough or incomplete information? Were there environmental distractors? Did you have a knowledge deficit regarding the concepts required to comprehensively care for this patient scenario? What actions could you have taken to improve your patient report? What systems are in place that would assist you? (SBAR, etc.) Describe them. The report was correctly related to the patient’s condition. It helped me to understand the present and past medical history of the client. Professor Anderson was very thorough and easy to understand. This particular client had the diagnosis of congested heart failure, which had been covered recently in class. I had knowledge relating to this illness that helped me to provide care for the patient in this condition. One of the distractors for me was to be recorded while working. It made me nervous, not because I did not know what to do but just simply the pressure of knowing that somebody was watching me. I know that I have to work on that. Even now as a senior nursing student, my anxiety still increases knowing that someone is watching me. What I would like is more time with the patient and it would be better if the patient’s conditions were more realistic. In real life, after I administer medication such as Lasix, a beta blocker, and digoxin, I need time to reassess t he patient to know if his or her condition has improved or not. It would be more realistic to have an SBAR instead of using the board

Week 2 Academic Paper Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Week 2 Academic Paper - Assignment Example It is important to clarify that this paper adds immense value to the operations of the research body of knowledge and to the cyber security community. This is by enlightening them on a number of common threats and how they can be mitigated. It also provides a well-defined auditing approach, which focuses on sorting of audit records based on legitimate and Clandestine users. Lastly but certainly not the least, it goes ahead to outlining a quality structure of a computer security surveillance system, which is very important in enhancing data security in a cyber-network (Anderson, 1980). Regardless of the benefits, there is a considerable number of weaknesses on this paper and they include lack of clear explanation on how data encryption will be implemented in the integration of surveillance subsystems. It also has a weakness particularly on monitoring vulnerability in a computer network connection (Westby, 2004). Instead, it only outlines computer security monitoring on the individual computer users and

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

SIMULATION REFECTION Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

SIMULATION REFECTION - Essay Example Even though I am now a senior nursing student I still get anxious when I have to confront real world situations because I am afraid of making a wrong decision that would compromise a patient’s health. This is the reason why it takes me a long time to get a nursing diagnosis. Mostly I double check with another nurse to be sure that I am doing the right thing. 2) Did you miss anything in getting report on these patients? If so why? Were you distracted? Did you receive too little information? Did you receive not enough or incomplete information? Were there environmental distractors? Did you have a knowledge deficit regarding the concepts required to comprehensively care for this patient scenario? What actions could you have taken to improve your patient report? What systems are in place that would assist you? (SBAR, etc.) Describe them. The report was correctly related to the patient’s condition. It helped me to understand the present and past medical history of the client. Professor Anderson was very thorough and easy to understand. This particular client had the diagnosis of congested heart failure, which had been covered recently in class. I had knowledge relating to this illness that helped me to provide care for the patient in this condition. One of the distractors for me was to be recorded while working. It made me nervous, not because I did not know what to do but just simply the pressure of knowing that somebody was watching me. I know that I have to work on that. Even now as a senior nursing student, my anxiety still increases knowing that someone is watching me. What I would like is more time with the patient and it would be better if the patient’s conditions were more realistic. In real life, after I administer medication such as Lasix, a beta blocker, and digoxin, I need time to reassess t he patient to know if his or her condition has improved or not. It would be more realistic to have an SBAR instead of using the board

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Leadership in Quality Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Leadership in Quality - Case Study Example J.M. Jurian noted that the quality of leadership is attainable, and the success factors are available, but companies are not doing enough to utilize such concepts (Keim 1). Quality and customers satisfaction has since been forgotten because companies have resorted to expansion other than improving service provision. Besides, there is an emphasis to increase profit gains compared to future sustainability. The situation has since grown to an extent where managers who are concerned about quality management seek alternative impacts of business success because valuable lesson learnt concerning cooperate ethics diminishes along with the generation. The most-important activity of any quality strategy is to do away with the wastes of all forms through a cover up of corporate malfeasance and accounting tricks. However, with effective leadership, there should be the focus because it is both the right and the smart thing to do. Ultimately, the current requirement of ethics is education for organizations and individuals. With respect to the above, the quality of service and ethics should not only be based on products and services, but also mutual expectation on th e right thing as it will enhance the smooth operation of economic systems (Keim 1). The hostess action was not in any way consistent with a customer focus on quality philosophy because she did not take much of her time to ascertain the truth about Mark’s reservation even after Mark had confirmed to have carried out the reservation three weeks earlier. Notably, errors do occur in any organization, and this might have led to the missing of Mark’s details in the reservation booklet. Unfortunately, she turned down Mark’s request to see the manager who could have otherwise looked into a proper solution of the above mess if at all she was to engage too much. The hostess also responded with much arrogance, which is against the customer focused quality philosophy when she

Female circumcision Essay Example for Free

Female circumcision Essay Female circumcision, also referred to as female genital mutilation, is a traditional practice dating back to ancient times in many African and Middle Eastern countries. It is a procedure that involves the cutting, burning or removal of the clitoris, labia and sexual tissues; the specifics of the procedure vary by region and culture. Female circumcision is performed on young girls usually between the ages of five and twelve years old. Many of the girls are tricked or forced into the procedure, which is performed by a woman in the village with knowledge of the tradition but no medical education or training. While it is considered a rite of passage for girls in these cultures, female circumcision has no valid medical purpose. The practice of female genital circumcision is a medically unnecessary one that leaves women with permanent physical, mental and emotional pain and scarring. Female genital mutilation procedures are done differently in various parts of the world. In some cases, the clitoris is cut from the body. In others, the clitoris and labia, the sexual tissues that are external to the vaginal opening, are cut away and the vaginal opening is stitched shut. According to Anika Rahman, there are, â€Å"numerous other procedures that have been documented, such as pricking, piercing, stretching or burning of the clitoris and/or surrounding tissues† (8). The procedure is usually done by a woman of the village or tribe designated for just this task. It is usually performed with knives or razor blades that are not sterile in unsanitary environments and conditions, increasing the risk for infection and complications. Performing such an intricate medical procedure outside of a hospital and without trained medical personnel can result in a variety of complications, including urinary tract infections, pelvic infections and anemia from excess bleeding. One of the most common long-term complications from female circumcision is pain and discomfort during sexual intercourse. Adding to this common problem is the fact that many women whose vaginal openings are stitched closed are forced to stay that way until their first sexual experience with their predetermined husband, which can lead to tearing, bleeding and further tissue damage or scarring. There are emotional and mental scars that accompany female genital mutilation along with the physical ones. In Tears of the Desert, Halima Bashir describes her experiences at eight years old in which a girl is made to feel special without being told what specifically will be done to her: â€Å"In our tradition circumcision is supposed to mark the passage from girlhood to womanhood, and so I was treated almost as if I were getting married† (55). She describes being held down by her own grandmother while a village woman cuts her with a razor blade and that, â€Å"I knew that somewhere deep in my lost womanhood there was a burning heart of agony, but I had removed my mind to a place where it couldn’t be hurt anymore† (57). These words sound like those of a trauma victim in shock rather than those of a girl that has undergone a traditional rite of passage, providing an example of the emotions that can be experienced by a girl forced into female circumcision with no prior knowledge of the procedure. In an interview with Alice Walker, another woman described how she was kidnapped by friends of her family and circumcised: â€Å"†¦her mother had told her they were going to a place where there were many bananas. She loved bananas. When they arrived, she was captured by women she’d never seen before, pinned down by them, circumcised, and kept secluded for two weeks† (Walker 42). Numerous accounts reflect memories of searing physical pain, tearing, bleeding, and fainting. The realization that this is done to a girl when she is as young as five years old makes the procedure seem even more brutal. The actual process of female circumcision is different in each country that practices it and so are the reasons behind it. There are no valid medical reasons for the procedure, and most countries that practice female circumcision hold it as a cultural tradition or rite of passage rather than a religious rite. Rahman states, â€Å"It is important to note that female circumcision is a cultural, not a religious practice. The practice predates the arrival of Christianity and Islam in Africa and is not a requirement of either religion† (6). In these countries, most women are considered the property of their families until they are given away to the husbands their parents has chosen for them to marry, and it is considered vital to go to marriage sexually pure and a virgin. It is believed in these cultures that female circumcision is one way to suppress sexual urges, to prevent sexual activity, and to ensure that a girl’s virginity is kept intact. A girl that isn’t circumcised is considered dirty, impure, and sexually deviant. Ayaan Hirsi Ali describes how, during her childhood in Somalia, â€Å"†¦little girls were made ‘pure’ by having their genitals cut out†¦I was a Somali woman, and therefore my sexuality belonged to the owner of my family, my father or my uncles†¦the place between my legs†¦would be broken only by my husband† (Ali 31, 72). This attitude is a commonly accepted one in countries that practice female circumcision, leading mothers to subject their daughters to the same practice that was done to them and often deceive them in order to force them to submit to tradition. Many girls are taught that they will be physically unclean and unsuitable for any man to want to marry and will therefore bring shame and dishonour to their families if they are not circumcised to keep them pure until marriage. Rheman states, â€Å"Refusing to undergo female circumcision may jeopardize a woman’s family relations, her social life or her ability to find a spouse† (25). Since most of these girls remain in their home villages their entire lives, the concept that not all women undergo this procedure is often unthinkable to them. Halima Bashir relates how, when she went away to college and encountered girls her age that hadn’t been forced to undergo circumcision, â€Å"At first I didn’t believe it. I had just presumed that all girls went through their cutting time† (145). Though it may be tradition, there is proof that female circumcision violates women’s human rights and should be illegal. The international treaty known as the Women’s Convention defends women against human rights violation and sexual discrimination. According to the convention, states Rheman, â€Å"female circumcision must meet two principal criteria. One, it must be a distinction based on sex and two, it must have the effect or purpose of impairing the equal enjoyment of rights by women. Female circumcision fits within this definition of gender discrimination† (21). Female circumcision is intended to stop women from experiencing physical pleasure during sex or even being able to have sex outside of their sanctioned marriage, making it a form of gender discrimination. Female circumcision deserves to be recognized as a tradition in the African and Middle Eastern countries in which it has been practiced. However, its recognition does not warrant the continued abuse and violation of human rights of the women in these countries. These women are subjected to years of physical pain, sexual problems, infections and childbearing complications. These procedures are inflicted upon them without their consent and without informing them of the health risks or alternatives. It represents an antiquated view of women in which they are undervalued and treated as property instead of free-thinking individuals with equal rights and voices. Female circumcision might be tradition, but it’s one that needs to be outlawed for the health and safety of women and in the name of upholding the human rights of all people. Works Cited Bashir, Halima. Tears of the Desert. New York: Ballantine, 2008. Hirsi Ali, Ayaan. Infidel. New York: Free Press, 2007. Rahman, Anika, ed. Female Genital Mutilation: A Guide to Laws and Policies Worldwide. New York: Zed Books, 2001. Walker, Alice and Prathiba Parmar. Warrior Marks: Female Genital Mutilation and the Sexual Blinding of Women. New York: Harvest Books, 1993.

Monday, October 14, 2019

The Matrix Analysis Essay

The Matrix Analysis Essay This report is based on Matrix movie. The Matrix movie is a science fiction-action film which was released in America on March 31, 1999. This film written and directed by Larry and Andy is the first part of Matrix series, not even movie also the part of comic book, video games and animation. The meaning of matrix is a rectangular array of matrix. In this movie its shows there is two different lives, one is computer generated world dream world and another is real, but all human living in dream word which is programed and none of them know. In this movie Neo is a hero and he is a computer programmer and he drawn into a rebellion against the machines. But first he wanted to know what is matrix. Morpheus is main character of this movie and he spends much time on matrix to find, and he also help other to find it. He is the caption of their team in their spaceship which they called Nebuchadnezzar. They always go to dream world and come back with hacked telephone line; it is only the safe exit from the matrix. In other side in dream world a group of Agent which is known as swat team. They want to kill the entire human, so they want to catch the Morpheus. Because he is the only person who knows all the matrix code to go back to their ship throw phone. When they catch the Morpheus then Neo come and save him from him. Discussion There are few issue and theories which are applied on them are following. Media Ecology :- The effect of media on human being throw the perception feeling, understanding etc. and its change our thinking feeling and behaving system. Main source of media are TV, film, radio, mobile, books. Issues raised in the movies are:- Movie seen : In this movie when Agent behind the Trinity to kill, then she ask for help from tank by her cell phone then Tank call on a local STD, when she picked up the phone then she reached at their real world from dream world (Programmed world) in form of matrix. Answer: -Matrix movie is fully based on media ecology. In this movie telephone is used as in the form of media ecology. They used it to communicate and to move from move real to virtual or virtual to real word. Telephone decreased the way difference between both lives and makes it a global village. Virtual word is the hot media in this movie because it programed world and caring huge amount of data and telephone is cold media. In this movie they are using number computer screens to read the matrix. Script from movie: -as example The ship is quiet and dark. Everyone is asleep IN MAIN DECK The core glows with monitor light. Cypher is in the Operators chair as Neo cones up behind him. CYPHER Whoa! Shit, Neo, you scared me. NEO Sorry. CYPHER Midnight watches. Neos eyes light up as he steps closer to the screens That seems alive with a constant flow of data. NEO It is The Matrix? CYPHER is The Matrix. Answer: In this script you can read that neo talking about computer screens to read the information, computer show some data to which have their own value which is called matrix. Computer becomes a medium for cypher in this example and data become its information and in other words these tools make more extension for them. Cognitive dissonance :- The uncomfortable feeling which is caused by double minded situation, and hard to decided which the person already done is good or not. When Neo become a part of their team they he start meeting to team members. When he meets the cypher, then cypher say: Cypher: I know you thinking same but I am thinking. Neo: what I am thinking? Cypher: why I not choose the blue pill, I want to go back in dream world and I am tired from this life ruled fully life. But Morpheus say it our real word. Answer: This theory is easily applied on Cypher, because first he decided to come in this world but now he wants to go back in virtual (programmed) world. He is double minded and feeling uncomfortable. In this line you can easy understand his feeling, action, behaviour and beliefs are out of harmony and other cause of this is his belief or exception is more than what he got, which is the main reason he feeling uncomfortable and thinking he choose wrong decision and choose red pill. Social penetration theory: It is also known as onion theory, it means it is referred in terms of breath and depth and every layer is show the human behaviour according to its breadth and depth. For example, how we are close to a person, its decrease the layer of personal information of that person for us. Answer: This theory is applied on the relationship of Neo and trinity. First Trinity and Neo was not known to each other closely, it is same like a Onion based example , when she start known about Neo and start come closer, then the interpersonal layers in start decreasing for Trinity and then she feel that he is the one and fall in love with Neo. Here is the script of movie which shows feeling of trinity about Neo. TRINITY Neo, I have to tell you something. I dont know what it means or even If it matters but I feel I have to say it. Ive never told anyone this before. I think Ive been afraid to. When I went to the Oracle, she told me she told me that I would meet A man. And that I would fall in Love Social identity: At the end part of movie when there is a fighting between Neo and agents. Agents catch the neo and kill him by gun but after some time Neo open his eyes and stand up and start fighting again and when again Agents try to shoot him then Neo stop all the bullets in air. Answer: In this part of movie when he was killed, at that movement he was fighting like a normal human and was not who he is. But when he starts thinking about the difference between real human and programmed created world and start compare agents and him. He finds his social identity. His social identity is he is the one in movie who can control his mind the see the difference between real and programed world. Conclusion This movie is a science based fiction-Action movie and media ecology is big part of this movie. Telephone and computer screen are both are the medium of source of information. They contact to each other through the cell phone and they travel on both worlds with telephone exception and all the information they got like position, way to go out from building are they got from computer screen in the form of matrix. So these are the tool of they use which are based on media ecology. Cypher is a character of this movie who feel uncomfortable because he want to go back in virtual world and thinking he choose wrong option so Cognitive dissonance theory is full applied on Cypher. According to social penetration theory human are like the onion, they have layers one after one as breadth and depth. It is same like how much you know a person, layer are start decreases and person start to come close to you same like the character of movie Trinity and Neo. Social identity is also applied on Neo in this movie because he finds his own personality, who he is and he got the difference between his and agents. Referencing Griffin, E. (2006). A first look at communication theory (6th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

The Romantic City of Venice Essay -- Observation Essay, Descriptive Ess

Venezia, known as Venice to the American, is one of the most unusual and romantic places in the world today. There you hear no car horns, alarms, or even squeaking brakes. There is just peace and quiet with a slight hum of the motor boats zooming by. You can be walking across a bridge where there are two lovers kissing and keep walking to the other side of the area and look back and they are still kissing. There is nothing to interrupt them, not even the slightest care in the world. It is a maze. Around one corner you could run right into the Grand Canal where you can hitch a ride on one of the famous gondolas, or around the next corner you might come to a famous square like the Piazza San Marco where the cobbled ground is covered in pigeons. Think that you know the way? You'd better, because if not, it will be a twisting trip home. Crossing the Rialto Bridge right over the Grand Canal, you can stop and listen, and the only sounds that you will hear are your footsteps, the quiet whispers of people's voices, or the hum of the motor boats that are whisking through the water below. A slight breeze crosses over the bridge and gives a outstanding sense of the natural and clean air that flows there. Across the bridge, you are in the heart of the city where you can take a narrow street called the Merceria that runs right through the city's chief shopping district and all the way back to Saint Mark's Square. The district is full of bustling people, mostly local residents, who are out for their occasional shopping, or have just gone for a stroll to get a couple of scoops of gelatto and just sit on a bench and chat with a friend. Saint Mark's Square is the center of activity in Venice. You can see the Basilica of Saint Mark or the ... ...da." The men on the barge just ignore their order to move, so they yell it again. This time the men on the barge just look over and give them a threatening look then keep unloading their gravel. After the third time, the older man on the barge drops his shovel, turns completely around and yells back at them, "Andarrsene, andare avanti," or go around. A fight breaks out and the men now exchange more unpleasant phrases. Then the men on the boat start their engine, swing their boat around, and head off in the other direction. The workers calmly continue to unload their gravel. When you want relaxation, culture, history, tradition, stimulation, and unique travel experiences, then Venezia is the destination of choice. After one night here, you'll feel the spirit of romance and adventure that lead the Venecians to smuggle the body of Saint Mark from Constantinople. The Romantic City of Venice Essay -- Observation Essay, Descriptive Ess Venezia, known as Venice to the American, is one of the most unusual and romantic places in the world today. There you hear no car horns, alarms, or even squeaking brakes. There is just peace and quiet with a slight hum of the motor boats zooming by. You can be walking across a bridge where there are two lovers kissing and keep walking to the other side of the area and look back and they are still kissing. There is nothing to interrupt them, not even the slightest care in the world. It is a maze. Around one corner you could run right into the Grand Canal where you can hitch a ride on one of the famous gondolas, or around the next corner you might come to a famous square like the Piazza San Marco where the cobbled ground is covered in pigeons. Think that you know the way? You'd better, because if not, it will be a twisting trip home. Crossing the Rialto Bridge right over the Grand Canal, you can stop and listen, and the only sounds that you will hear are your footsteps, the quiet whispers of people's voices, or the hum of the motor boats that are whisking through the water below. A slight breeze crosses over the bridge and gives a outstanding sense of the natural and clean air that flows there. Across the bridge, you are in the heart of the city where you can take a narrow street called the Merceria that runs right through the city's chief shopping district and all the way back to Saint Mark's Square. The district is full of bustling people, mostly local residents, who are out for their occasional shopping, or have just gone for a stroll to get a couple of scoops of gelatto and just sit on a bench and chat with a friend. Saint Mark's Square is the center of activity in Venice. You can see the Basilica of Saint Mark or the ... ...da." The men on the barge just ignore their order to move, so they yell it again. This time the men on the barge just look over and give them a threatening look then keep unloading their gravel. After the third time, the older man on the barge drops his shovel, turns completely around and yells back at them, "Andarrsene, andare avanti," or go around. A fight breaks out and the men now exchange more unpleasant phrases. Then the men on the boat start their engine, swing their boat around, and head off in the other direction. The workers calmly continue to unload their gravel. When you want relaxation, culture, history, tradition, stimulation, and unique travel experiences, then Venezia is the destination of choice. After one night here, you'll feel the spirit of romance and adventure that lead the Venecians to smuggle the body of Saint Mark from Constantinople.